Karl V. und die Reformation (German Edition)

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But, even though Philip married Mary in July , the English Parliament emphatically refused to crown him. He disembarked in Spain at the end of September and moved to the monastery of Yuste, which he had long before selected as his final refuge, in early February There he laid the groundwork for the eventual bequest of Portugal to the Habsburgs after the eventual death of King Sebastian who was then still a child with the help of his sister Catherine, grandmother of Sebastian and regent of Portugal. Not only the task but the man to whom it was given had a dual nature. By background and training, Charles was a medieval ruler whose outlook on life was stamped throughout by a deeply experienced Roman Catholic faith and by the knightly ideals of the late chivalric age.

Yet his sober, rational, and pragmatic thinking again mark him as a man of his age. More than that, it is precisely this individual claim to power that forms the core of his personality and explains his aims and actions. Charles himself had been considering the idea even in his prime. Once the abdication had become a fact, St.

Ignatius of Loyola had this to say:. The emperor gave a rare example to his successors…in so doing, he proved himself to be a true Christian prince…may the Lord in all His goodness now grant the emperor freedom. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.

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Written By: Michael de Ferdinandy. Top Questions. Read more below: Imperialist goals, rivalry with Francis I, and fight against Protestantism. Ferdinand I. Philip II. Read more below: Early life. Holy Roman Empire: The empire in modern times. Read More on This Topic. Start Your Free Trial Today.

Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Charles I, who was elected Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in upon the death of his paternal grandfather, Maximilian, aspired to universal monarchy over the far-flung territories he had inherited, from Germany, the Low Countries, Italy, and Spain to the New World. In this youth, the vast dual inheritance of the Spanish and Habsburg empires came together. The dominions of Charles V thus encircled France and incorporated the wealth of Spain overseas.

Even after the division of this vast inheritance between his son, Philip II of Spain, and his brother, the emperor Ferdinand I, the conflict between the Habsburgs and the French crown dominated the…. Council of Trent, 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, held in three parts from to Prompted by the Reformation, the Council of Trent was highly important for its sweeping decrees on self-reform and for its dogmatic definitions that clarified virtually every doctrine….

Karl V. - Herrscher über ein Weltreich

Holy Roman Empire, the varying complex of lands in western and central Europe ruled over first by Frankish and then by German kings for 10 centuries — For histories of the territories governed at various times by the empire, see France; Germany; Italy. The precise term Sacrum Romanum…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox!

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Even though he granted an amnesty, the young monarch proved to be an intransigent ruler, bloodily suppressing the revolt and signing death warrants. Those actions were nevertheless followed by a rapid and complete rapprochement between the pacified people and their sovereign; in fact, it was during that second and protracted sojourn in Spain —29 that Charles became a Spaniard, with Castilian grandees replacing the Burgundians. There soon developed an emotionally tinged understanding between Charles and his Spanish subjects that was to be steadily deepened during his long rule.

Henceforth, it was primarily the material resources of his Spanish domains that sustained his far-flung policies and his Spanish troops who acquitted themselves most bravely and successfully in his wars. The victory ensured Spanish supremacy in Italy. The Treaty of Madrid concluding hostilities between the two countries was signed in January , but as soon as he had regained his freedom, Francis rejected the treaty and refused to ratify it. Although Charles realized that his first duty as emperor of Christendom lay in warding off that peril, he found himself so enmeshed in the affairs of western Europe that he had little time, energy, and money left for the task.

The pope, having surrendered to the mutinous troops, was ready for any compromise.

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The status quo was preserved: Charles renounced his claim to Burgundy; Francis, his claims to Milan and Naples. The pope, having made peace with Charles, met him in Bologna ; there he crowned him emperor in February It was to be the last time that a Holy Roman emperor was crowned by a pope. In Charles, attempting to bring about a reformation within the Roman Catholic Church through the convocation of a universal council, also tried to find a modus vivendi with the Protestants.

The final decree issued by the Diet accordingly confirmed, in somewhat expanded form, the resolutions embodied in the Edict of Worms of That, in turn, caused the Protestant princes to close ranks in the following year in the Schmalkaldic League.

lalinelaba.tk Faced with renewed Turkish onslaughts, the emperor granted some concessions in return for armed support against the enemy. Instead, the emperor returned to Spain in , leaving his brother Ferdinand behind as his deputy. From Africa the emperor sailed to Naples , entering Rome in to deliver his famous political address before Pope Paul III and the Sacred College of Cardinals in which he challenged the king of France who had meanwhile invaded Savoy and taken Turin to personal combat.

When Francis declined, Charles invaded Provence in an operation that soon faltered. Intent on suppressing the open revolt that had broken out in Ghent , his native city, the emperor himself went to the Netherlands. Once again his actions, as severe as those he had taken against the comuneros in , were crowned by success.

Toward the German Protestants, on the other hand, he showed himself conciliatory; in the Diet of Regensburg granted them major concessions, even if those were later rejected by both the pope and Luther. When Charles granted his son Philip the duchy of Milan, the king of France, enraged because he had hoped to regain indirect control of Milan himself, rearmed and declared war in August Fighting broke out the following year, even though the pope had finally convoked, in Trent Trento , Italy , the council for which the emperor had been pressing.